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What do you know about Saudi Arabia, the capital of the Islamic world | newsyel

What do you know about Saudi Arabia, the capital of the Islamic world

What do you know about Saudi Arabia, the capital of the Islamic world | newsyel

History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

The roots of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia go back to the oldest civilizations that existed in the Arabian Peninsula. A region that lies between the past and the present and at the center that unites three continents, a vital commercial center that played a major role in global history, and the cradle of Islam, from which it was launched.

The history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia began when King Abdulaziz Al Saud recaptured Riyadh and worked to unify the country and establish the Saudi state for the third time. The first decades of the Kingdom’s history witnessed campaigns to unify and restore areas in the Arabian Peninsula, achieve stability, settle its tribes, and achieve civilizational achievements. After the end of the unification of the country, the announcement of the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was issued in 1351 AH / 1932 AD, and the date of this announcement became September 23 as a national day for the Kingdom.

After its unification, the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was adopted on September 23, 1351 AH / 1932 AD, and it was declared as an Islamic state whose national language is Arabic, and its constitution is the Holy Qur’an. The Kingdom celebrates the 23rd of September every year throughout the Kingdom as the Kingdom's National Day.

The pace of the Kingdom in the economic industry accelerated, and this was reinforced by the emergence of oil and mineral extraction, the multiplication of trade relations with international countries, the spread of internal trade, in addition to attracting and benefiting from global technologies within the Kingdom. The Kingdom has achieved a balanced equation between tradition and modernity, through a clear vision of development and growth, which has produced a set of modern metropolises and various developmental achievements.

The mix of old and new, modernity and tradition is evident throughout the kingdom as well as the benefits of massive investment in people, infrastructure and the environment. The Kingdom has achieved a balance between tradition and modernity, has protected its cities and villages from desertification, and developed a number of international cities while preserving their historical character.

In just a few decades, the kingdom transformed itself from a desert country into a developed modern country and a major player on the international stage. Today, the ongoing dynamism of the Kingdom's people and leadership embodies one of the world's most ambitious national transformation programmes. It is Vision 2030.

what do you know about Saudi Arabia

It is an Arab Islamic country, occupying the greater part of the Arabian Peninsula. It is distinguished by its strategic location between three continents. It is the home of many civilizations and the cradle of heavenly messages. Its capital is Riyadh. Muhammad bin Saud established the first Saudi state (the Emirate of Diriyah) in 1744, and this state lasted until 1818.


The total population of the Kingdom, according to estimates of July 2013, reached about 27 million, of whom about 6 million are non-Saudis (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Egyptians, Palestinians, Lebanese, Syrians and other Arabs and foreigners). Islam is the official religion in Saudi Arabia, and officially, everyone who holds Saudi citizenship is a Muslim. Some sources estimate that 10 to 15% of the citizens are Ja`fari Shiites, who are concentrated in the eastern regions, with an Ismaili presence in the Najran region.


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is located in the southwestern part of the continent of Asia, between latitudes 16 and 33 degrees north, and between longitudes 34 and 56 east. It occupies about 80% of the area of ​​the Arabian Peninsula (2,149,690 km2). The length of the borders of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is about 6,760 km, of which 4,430 km are land borders, and 2,330 km are maritime borders, including about 500 km on the Persian Gulf.

It is bordered by Iraq and Jordan to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, and Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain to the east, linked to the kingdom through the King Fahd Causeway on the Arabian Gulf. As for the south, it is bordered by Yemen, the Sultanate of Oman from the southeast, and the Red Sea from the west, with a length of more than 1,700 km.

Geographical features

The topography of the Kingdom varies due to its vast area. Along the Red Sea, the coastal plain of Tihama is about 1,100 km in length and 60 km in width in the south, and gradually narrows in its northward direction towards the Gulf of Aqaba. To the east of this plain, the Sarawat mountain range rises, whose height ranges between 9000 feet in the south, and the height gradually decreases as you head north to reach 3000 feet. Large valleys descend from it, heading east and west, such as Wadi Jazan, Wadi Najran, Wadi Tathleeth, Wadi Bisha, Wadi al-Hamad, Wadi al-Rama, Wadi Yanbu and Wadi Fatima. This chain is followed from the east by the Najd plateau and its heights, which end in the east with the Al-Dahna Dunes and the Samman Desert, and south to Dhi Al-Dawas in the desert area through which the desert runs through.

From the north, the plains of Najd extend to the Hail region until it connects to the Great Nafud Desert, then to the borders of Iraq and Jordan. There are also some mountainous heights, such as the Tuwaiq, Al-Arid, Aja and Salma mountains. As for the Empty Quarter desert, it constitutes the southeastern part of the Kingdom. It is a large desert area estimated at 640,000 square kilometers, consisting of sand dunes and marshes.

As for the eastern coastal plain, which has a length of about 610 km and is interspersed with large areas of salt marshes and sandy areas.

the climate

The Kingdom's climate varies from one region to another due to its different topography, and it is under the influence of the tropical high altitude. In general, the Kingdom's climate is continental, with hot summers, cold winters, and winter rains. The climate is moderate on the western and southwestern highlands, while the central regions have hot and dry summers and cold and dry winters. And rise on the coasts temperature and humidity.

And the rains fall in the winter and spring, and they are few, on large areas of the Kingdom, except for the southwestern highlands of the Kingdom, which have relatively heavy seasonal summer rains. As for the humidity, it rises on the coasts and the western highlands in most days of the year and decreases as we head inland.

Administrative division of the kingdom

According to the system of regions issued by Royal Decree No. (1/92) dated 27/8/1412 AH, the Kingdom was divided into (13) administrative regions, and the region is divided into a number of governorates, the number of which varies from one region to another, and the governorate is divided into centers that are administratively linked to the governorate Or the emirate, and the emirate, governorate, or center includes a number of population names that are linked to it administratively.

Kingdom National Day.

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia celebrates its National Day on the first day of Libra, corresponding to September 23 of each year, in commemoration of the unification of the Kingdom and its founding at the hands of the late His Majesty King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, who announced the establishment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1351 AH (1932 AD).

Important milestones in the history of Saudi Arabia

1932 - The areas under the control of Abdulaziz Al Saud are united under the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

1938 - The discovery of oil, and the start of its production by Aramco (the Arab American Oil Company).

1960 - Saudi Arabia becomes one of the founding countries of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC, at a conference held in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad.

1973 - Saudi Arabia leads an oil embargo against Western countries that supported Israel in the October War, which leads to a fourfold increase in oil prices.

2001 - The September 11 attacks on New York and Washington were 19 Saudis, 15 of whom were found to be Saudis.

2011 - Saudi forces contribute to suppressing the popular protests that erupted in Bahrain, within the framework of the Peninsula Shield system, which was established to protect the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council.

2015 - In March, Saudi Arabia begins carrying out airstrikes targeting the Houthis in Yemen.