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What do you know about the two brothers’ blood tree on the Yemeni island of Socotra|newsyel

What do you know about the two brothers’ blood tree on the Yemeni island of Socotra

What do you know about the two brothers’ blood tree on the Yemeni island of Socotra|newsyel


The island of Socotra was known since the beginning of the first millennium BC as one of the important centers for the production of sacred goods. Therefore, it gained its fame and importance as a source for the production of those commodities that were used in the devotional rituals of the religions of the ancient world, where it was believed that the land that produces sacred goods at that time is a blessed land of the gods.

The island of Socotra is considered the largest of the Yemeni islands, and it is administratively affiliated to the Hadhramaut Governorate, according to the Republican Decree Law No. (23) of the year 1999 AD, and it was officially announced as a nature reserve in the year 2000 AD. The former Socotra Island was administratively affiliated to the Aden Governorate.


In ancient history, the island was associated with the Kingdom of Hadhramaut, but in the modern era it was linked to the Sultan of Mahra until the outbreak of the Yemeni revolution. In view of the importance of the role that the island played in the production of sacred and precious commodities from various spices and pearls, it had a presence in the books of ancient travelers and geographers, and its news continued to recur throughout different historical eras.


In the phase of geographical exploration, the island was coveted by the invaders, as the Portuguese occupied it at the beginning of the sixteenth century in (1507 AD), then the British occupied it, where the island formed a rear base for their occupation of the city of Aden in 1839 AD.


Socotra Island was subjected to long years of isolation and neglect, but after the achievement of the blessed Yemeni unity, it regained its historical glory and civilizational continuity due to the importance it represents to Yemen, both in terms of its strategic location at the end of the Gulf of Aden


And supervising the navigational route towards the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean, or for its great natural wealth, in addition to considering it one of the most important areas of biodiversity. The island of Socotra was subjected to long years of isolation and neglect, but after achieving the blessed Yemeni unity, it regained its historical glory and its civilized continuity due to the importance it represents to Yemen, both in terms of its strategic location at the end of the Gulf of Aden and its supervision of the navigational route towards the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean, or for its great natural wealth. In addition to being considered one of the most important areas for biodiversity.


The geographical location of the island of Socotra


Socotra Island is located in the southern side of the Republic of Yemen, opposite the city of Mukalla, east of the Gulf of Aden, between latitudes (12.18 - 12.24) north of the equator and longitudes (53.19 - 54.33) east of Jir Yinch, 380 km away from Ras Fartak in Al-Mahra Governorate as the nearest A point in the Yemeni coast, estimated at 300 miles, and about 553 miles away from Aden Governorate. Thus, the site indicates its proximity to the equator, which makes its climate generally tropical. Diversity in vegetation.


Socotra island area


The area of the island is 3650 km2, and the shape of the island belongs to the rectangular and fragmented form together, and there are some islands belonging to the mother island of Socotra.


Landforms of Socotra Island


The geological formation of the island does not differ on the base in the Arabian Peninsula, as it consists of ancient and metamorphic igneous rocks and abundant granite rocks. In the middle of the island are mountains with the highest height at the eastern edge of the Hajhar mountains 1500 meters and the height of the central areas 500 meters. The topography of the island is distributed between mountains, plains and plateaus valleys and bays This is as follows:


The central plateau: This plateau occupies most of the island's area and overlooks the coastal plains in a gradual decline. It is divided by the valley (De Azrou) into two main parts, the eastern plateau and the western plateau.


Northern coastal plains (The Hadibo plain) and is distributed in separate areas such as: - the plains of Ras Mazhan - and the plains of Wadi Darba'a and Wadi Ta'un.


Southern coastal plains (Nujad plain) and is distributed into the following: Plains of Wadi Difarho - Plains of Wadi Deazarho.


The southern coastal plain of the Qatari mountains, which is called the Nujad plain and the Qa’ara plain. These plains extend from the south of Ras Mumi in the east of the island to Ras Shu’ab in the west. These plains cover rich soil suitable for agriculture, while soft sand dunes spread near the coast.


Socotra island mountains


The mountains are distributed on separate sides of the surface of the central plateau, the most important of which are: the Hajhar mountain range, and the highest peak in it reaches a height of (1,500 meters). In the west, there are also a number of other mountains, the most important of which is the Falaj Mountains to the east, the highest peak of which is (640 meters).


Likewise, the Quelhal Mountains, to the southwest, have the highest peak (978 meters), and the Kedah Mountains in the south, where they reach a height of 699 meters, and the Qatari mountains in the south also reach a height of 560 meters. Zula, Mount Aifa and Mount Khairha, which rises (1,394 meters), in addition to Mount Qaten, which rises (800 meters), Mount Fadhan, which rises with a height of (778 meters), and Mount Qirkh, with a height of 660 meters.


Valleys of Socotra Island


On the island of Socotra, there are a large number of valleys, and they take several paths and directions according to the effects of the surface, which are as follows:


The valleys that flow north of the island into the sea, located to the east of the city of Hadibo, are characterized by their small basins and the shortness of their streams, as they do not exceed a distance of (7 km) approximately, and they have large drainage due to the continuous flow of water in them throughout the year, such as: Wadi Danghan - Wadi Hashra - Wadi Dania - Wadi Daraba'a - Wadi Touq.


The valleys that flow in the northwest, located to the north of Mount Fadhan Matlo, such as: - Wadi Doahar - Wadi Amedhan - Wadi Jaalal - Wadi Dimajet - Wadi Farha.


The valleys that flow to the south of the island and are located to the east of Jabal Qaryat, are valleys with long streams and wide basins with greater drainage than the northern valleys due to the heavy summer rains that fall on the southern slopes, especially in the Nougd plain, which led to the availability of water in them in addition to the lack of exposure of this plain to the winds The severe conditions created favorable conditions for the emergence of limited agricultural activity.


The valleys of the south: such as: Wadi Sterio - Wadi Trivers - Wadi Rishi - Wadi Asra - Shibhoun - Wadi Faqah - Wadi Ayra - Wadi Zangata - Wadi Deezerho - Wadi Defarho - Wadi Deshtan - Wadi Mutif.


These valleys end at the edge of the plateau and drain into the southern coastal plain. As for the valleys that reach their estuaries to the sea, they are Wadi Sahhoub and Wadi Asham. This is in addition to the subsidiary valleys located between the mountain range and flowing into the center of the island.


Capes and bays on the island of Socotra


On the island there are a number of rocky headlands, some of which extend into the sea water, such as the headlands located in the north and east, the most important of which are - Ras Mumi - Ras Didim - Ras Mazhan - Ras Burkaten - Ras Adho - Ras de Hamri - Ras Hulav - Ras Qarqamah - Ras At - Ras Bechara - Ras Smari - Ras Hamuhar, in addition to the headlands located to the west of the island, such as: Ras Badawa - Ras Hamrho - Ras Shuaub.


There are a few bays on the island, and its importance lies in exploiting them as natural ports, especially during the exposure of parts of the island to strong winds that hit the Hadibo plain and the eastern and western parts, starting from the beginning of June until late September.


Climate on Socotra Island


The island has a hot marine climate where the maximum temperature ranges between (26°-29°) Celsius, the minimum temperatures range between 19°-23° Celsius, and the annual average temperature ranges between (27-29)° Celsius, where the average temperature for the month of January is (24° C) and for the month of July 30 Celsius and the climate of Socotra is tropical, with long, hot summers, while winters are warm, short, and rainy at the same time. The months of June and July are considered to be the highest in temperature and the least hot months are December and January, and the temperature rates are much lower in the mountainous areas.


The average relative humidity ranges from 55% in August to 70% in January - The island is exposed to strong southwesterly winds that reach their peak in early June until late August and then begin to gradually decline to reach at the beginning of October to a normal speed when it turns to northeasterly winds and its speed decreases to (10 knots), while the southwest winds are in the months of June July and August, its speed will be strong (40-50) knots, and in some parts of the island it may reach more than 55 knots, accompanied by severe sea turbulence.


Average rainfall on Socotra Island


The amount of precipitation ranges from (33) to (290) mm during the year.


Population of Socotra Island


The population of Socotra Island is about (44,120 people), according to the 2004 census.


Administrative division on the island of Socotra


Socotra Island is divided administratively into two districts:


Hadibo District is considered the administrative center of the island of Socotra. It is located in the northern plain of the island, overlooking the Hajhar mountain range from the northern side. It is also surrounded by dense forests of palm trees along the valleys in which water flows throughout the year. Some services are available in the city of Hadibo. The most important villages are Qadeeb, located on the road from Morey Airport, which has been newly equipped with advanced services and prepared to receive large planes of all kinds.


Qalansiya and Abd al-Kuri district is located in Qalansiya city, which is located in the western coastal strip of Socotra Island. It is considered the second urban settlement after Hadibo. The name Qalansiya goes back to the period of the Portuguese occupation of the island in (1507 AD), and the houses of the city consist of only one storey, and they are predominantly white, which gives the city a beautiful character.


The city of Qalansiya is surrounded by a number of beautiful beaches and village gatherings that depend in their activities on fishing and grazing. This directorate is also considered a receiving point for fishing vessels coming from Hadramout Governorate.


The tourist attractions on Socotra Island


The island of Socotra is of great interest by the government to take advantage of its diverse reserves, natural characteristics and economic advantages. The elements of tourist attractions on the island are part of this general framework, which is generally determined by considering the island a museum of natural history with its rare biological diversity, while benefiting from global efforts and concerns. By preserving the island of Socotra as a natural gem.


The first concern is limited to development programs to preserve the island as a natural reserve within the framework of the human and biosphere program and to nominate Socotra as a nature reserve that receives regional and global attention to serve humanity.


The second concern is confined to the project to protect the biodiversity of the island and its archipelago. This was the decision of the Prime Minister No. (96) in April of the year 1996 AD to avoid any deterioration in the natural environment of the island in light of the increase in the pace of economic and population growth on the island during the current and future period. Where it calls for in the medium term the implementation of projects to protect species and environmentally sensitive sites in order to ensure the sustainability of development in a balanced manner in light of a difficult equation to preserve the areas of natural reserves.


With this equation, the person residing on the island or coming to it constitutes the most important element as it gives a special dimension to the importance of integration between the various elements of life, and thus can live in a good civilized level if he manages to deal well with his life demands and preserve the nature and environment of the island from destruction, because through an equation Balance The many benefits of tourism in our country and the human sciences can be achieved in maintaining the manifestations of biodiversity as an essential factor for the continuation of a prosperous life on the island.


Vegetation cover on the island of Socotra


The island of Socotra enjoys a unique plant diversity, where the number of plant species reaches about nine hundred species, of which three hundred are endemic, and there are among them a group of medicinal plants. There are also more than three hundred species of wildlife that take Socotra the only place to live in the world.


The Socotra Archipelago constitutes an independent marine ecosystem, as the importance of its unique environment and the vast and unique biodiversity of global importance is no less important than the Galapagos Islands. The International Union for Conservation of Nature described it as (the Galapagos of the Indian Ocean). The island is also one of the four most important islands in the world in terms of plant biodiversity and is home to thousands of endemic plants, animals and birds, and thus is considered the most important home to the famous frankincense trees in ancient times. The entirety of 25 species of frankincense, of which (9) species are endemic to the island of Socotra.


About (850) species of plants were recorded on the island, of which about (270) species are endemic to the island and are not found anywhere else in the world. Among the important and valuable species is the blood tree of the two brothers. It should be noted that (10) of the 18 species of rare and threatened plants in Yemen are found in Socotra, which requires attention and preservation, as (7) species of them are listed in the Red Book of the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN as plants. rare and endangered.


There are also plants on the island that are used in folk medicine and treatment of many diseases, and among these plants are the Socotra patience trees, frankincense trees, myrrh and the blood of the two brothers, in addition to other medicinal plants commonly used on the island, such as Al-Jarraz, Euphorbia and others. To the dense palm tree forests scattered in many places, the most important of which are the banks of the valleys in which water runs throughout the year, where they form a green cedar rug with the blue sea surrounding the island, a wonderful painting.


Birds and marine life on the island of Socotra


Socotra birds are multi-species so that they constitute one of the features of the environment of diversity in nature and includes one hundred and ninety species of birds and contains many aquatic organisms such as turtles, coral reefs and pearls, for which Socotra is famous There are 30 species of birds breeding on the island, and the island contains a high percentage of endemic birds.


Caves and Caves on Socotra Island


There are many mountain caves and caves in many locations on the island of Socotra and its affiliated islands.


These caves were formed by natural erosion factors, and in some of them “geological” factors interacted, as the water dissolved the lime and formed limestone columns suspended from the top of the caves’ surfaces, in addition to limestone columns rising from the bottom of the caves to the top. The usual natural landscape, the most important of which in general is the “De Jeb” cave in the Nougd plain, where it is considered the largest in size, and can accommodate a number of families, and a car carrying visitors can reach the cave and move inside it in and out without trouble. The De Jeb cave is 75 km away from Hadibo Center metres.


The beaches of Socotra Island


The island's beaches extend for a distance of 300 miles and have unique characteristics in terms of its pure white sand dunes, which appear to the visitor as heaps of the cotton crop, most of which are shaded by palm trees.


Overlooking the sea water free of pollution factors, where you see types of fish swimming in it, and all of them are ideal sites for recreation and diving after the provision of infrastructure services on the island and the preparation of those beaches with tourist services. the size In addition to the coral reefs and pearls, the island of Socotra has been famous since ancient times.


Waterfalls on the island of Socotra


On the island of Socotra, there are a number of waterfalls of heavy water spread in different locations, the most important of which are the “Denghan” waterfalls in Hadibo, which is only 6 km away from the center, as well as the waterfalls of Hala, Mawmi, Qara and Eift, and most of these waterfalls stem from the highest mountains throughout the year. In general: the revitalization of the tourist movement to the island of Socotra needs to provide infrastructure services in all the tourist attractions and thus the provision of auxiliary tourism services within the framework of the integrated plan to protect the areas of nature reserves


The economic advantages of Socotra Island


Socotra Island is characterized by the diversity of its economic resources. These resources are as follows:

The island is one of the important areas for fishing and has a large fish reserve.

The availability of many types of soils such as histosol soil with organic matter, silty soil, red soil, pitcher soil and other soils has contributed to the possibility of planting date palms, which are available for more than 25 types of dates.

The practice of the grazing profession on a large scale in the mountains and plateaus, which provided a large animal wealth on the island, and the presence of commercial grazing on the island may improve the condition of the pastoral population and the status of their pastoral profession as well.

Many researchers consider this island to be one of the vital and important regions in the availability of mineral resources such as oil, gas and other resources in the foreseeable future.


Pottery on the island of Socotra


The island of Socotra is unique in two types of pottery by virtue of the soil in it. The first type is made of solid red soil, and the second type is made of white Yen soil. We display in Socotra markets, and most tourists and visitors buy from these pottery.


Carpentry and shipbuilding on the island of Socotra


This craft is still widespread in the coastal plains and the bottoms, such as making doors, windows, wooden boxes and door closers. Among the wood, the boat industry, small and medium fishing hooves, and boat oars, and these industries require great experience and skill, and this includes the manufacture of gargoyr, which is meant by fishing nets, its height reaches two meters and its length is about three to four meters.


Socotra Island is one of the richest marine areas for the abundance and diversity of marine trees and their medicinal benefits for these wood and carpentry industries.


Leather industries on the island of Socotra


The leather industries on the island of Socotra are solid, elaborate and beautiful in appearance, especially cowhide leather. The Al-Wahfa, which is the mattress, is still widely used in the Socotra deserts. It is a special mattress made of cowhide, decorated with natural brown, black and white colors, which are required by visitors and tourists.

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