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Why was the island of Crimea called by that name?

Why was the island of Crimea called by that name?

Why is Crimea called that name?

The geographical location of the island of Crimea

Why was the Crimea called by that name? Crimea, or a peninsula located on the northern coast of the Black Sea, is currently part of Ukraine, with a history of more than 2000 years.

Crimea has been invaded or controlled many times throughout its history. The Cimmerians, Greeks, Scythians, Goths, Huns, Bulgarians, Khazars, Kievan Rus' State, Byzantine Greeks, Qipchaks, Ottoman Turks, Golden Horde Tatars and Mongols all controlled the Crimea in its early history.

 In the 13th century, it was partly administered by the Venetians and Genoese; Then by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 18th centuries; The Russian Empire in the 18th and 20th centuries, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later the Ukrainian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the Soviet Union. In 1991 it became part of the independent Ukraine as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

The reason behind the name Crimea

The name "Crimea" is derived from the name of the city of Qırım (today called Stari Qurum), which was the capital of the Crimean province during the era of the Golden Horde. The ancient Greeks called it Tauris (later Taurica), after its Taurian inhabitants. Eventually it was renamed by the Crimean Tatars, and derives its name from the modern Crimean language. The word "Crimea" is derived from the Crimean Tatar Qırım, from the Greek Krimeía (Κριμαία).

After the annexation of Crimea in 1783, the newly appointed Russian authorities made an attempt to revive the old name, and the former lands of the Crimean Khanate were reorganized into the Taurida Province. But the name is used only in official documents and "Crimea" remained the country's common name.

Crimea's history

Taurika is the Crimean name in the Archaic period. Taurica was inhabited by different peoples. The interior was inhabited by Scythians and the mountainous southern coast was inhabited by the Tauris, an offshoot of the Cimmerians. Greek settlers inhabited a number of colonies along the coast of the peninsula, the most famous of which is the city of R in modern-day Svatopol. M. In the second century BC.

Romanian Crimea

The eastern region of Taurica became part of the Kingdom of the Bosporus, before it was included within the Roman Empire in the first century BC. During the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd centuries BC, Taurica hosted Roman legions (not legions but some auxiliary forces) and colonists in Charax, Crimea. Eventually the Crimean Tatars renamed Taurika, taking its name from the modern Crimean language. The word "Crimea" derives from the Crimean Tatar name Qırım, from the Greek Krimea (Κριμαία).

Over the following centuries, Crimea was invaded or occupied by the Goths (AD 250), the Huns (376), the Bulgarians (4th-8th centuries), the Khazars (8th centuries), Kievan Rus' (10th-11th centuries), and the Byzantine Empire (1016th century). ), the Qibchaks (1050), and the Mongols (1237). 

In the 13th century, the Republic of Genoa seized the colonies built by its rivals, the Venetians, along the Crimean coast and controlled the Crimean economy and trade in the Black Sea for two centuries.

Crimea in the Middle Ages

A number of Turkic peoples, now known as the Crimean Tatars, have settled in the peninsula since the early Middle Ages. After the destruction of the Golden Horde by Timur, the Crimean Tatars established the independent Crimean Khanate in 1441, under the leadership of Khaji Karai, grandson of Genghis Khan. The Crimean Tatars controlled the steppes from the Kuban to the Dinster, although at first they could not control the Genoese trading towns.

After the fall of the Genoese towns, the Ottoman sultan managed to capture Menkali Karai, and then released it in exchange for accepting the Ottomans' sovereignty over the Crimean Khans and allowing them to rule as emirs of the Ottoman Empire. However, the Crimean Khanate continued to enjoy a great deal of autonomy from the Ottoman Empire. In 1774, following the Russo-Ottoman War (1768-1774), the Crimean Khanate fell under Russian influence by the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarja, and in 1783, Crimea was fully incorporated into the Russian Empire.

Crimea in the Ottoman Empire: 1783–1917

Until the late 18th century, the Tatars maintained a huge slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East, exporting 2 million slaves from Russia and Ukraine in the 1500–1700 years. 1769 The last major Tatar raid, which took place during the Russo-Turkish War, in which 20,000 slaves were captured.

Crimean war

Crimea became part of the Russian province of Taurida and saw much fighting in the Crimean War (1853–56), which destroyed much of the peninsula's economic and social infrastructure.

Crimea in the Russian Civil War: 1917–1921

During the Russian Civil War, following the withdrawal of the Russian Empire, the forces controlling Crimea changed hands several times and were the stronghold of the anti-Bolshevik White Army.

Crimea witnessed the last stand of the White Russians led by General Wrangel against the anarchist forces of Nestor Makhno and the Red Army in 1920. About 50,000 white and civilian prisoners of war were executed by firing squad or by hanging after the defeat of General Wrangel at the end of 1920. This is considered one of the largest massacres of the civil war.

The hands in control of Crimea changed several times depending on the conflict or the different political entities established on the peninsula. They include:

Crimean People's Republic — December 1917–January 1918 — Crimean Tatar government Toreda SSR—March 19, 1918–April 30, 1918—Bolshevik government.

Occupation of Germany and the Ukrainian People's Republic—May 1918–June 1918

First Crimean local government — June 25, 1918–November 25, 1918 — vassal state of Germany under Tatar general Maciej (Suleyman) Sulkiewicz.

Second Crimean Local Government—November 1918–April 1919—Anti-Bolshevik government under Crimean Karaite former Kadet member Suleiman Corm.

The Crimean Soviet Socialist Republic - April 2, 1919 - June 1919 - Bolshevik government.

South Russian government—February 1920–April 1920—government of General of the White Movement Anton Denikin

South Russian government — April 1920 (officially August 16, 1920)–November 16, 1920 — government of White Movement general Pyotor Warangel.

Government of the Bolshevik Revolutionary Committee — November 1920–October 18, 1921 — Bolshevik government led by Béla Kun (until February 20, 1921), then by Mikhail Polyakov.

The Crimean Soviet Federative Socialist Republic—October 18, 1921–June 30, 1945—An autonomous republic of the Soviet Union.

Crimea in the Soviet Union: 1922–1991

On October 18, 1921, the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established as part of the RSFSR, which, in turn, became part of the Soviet Union.

Crimea suffered from two major famines in the twentieth century, the famine of 1920-1921 and the Holodomor of 1932-1933.

During World War II, Crimea witnessed various bloody battles. The German-led Axis powers inflicted heavy losses in the summer of 1941 as they attempted to advance across the isthmus by riding the narrow passage between Crimea and the Soviet mainland.

Once the Axis powers passed, they occupied most of Crimea, except for the city of Sevastopol, which was besieged from October 1941 until July 4, 1942 when the Germans finally succeeded in capturing the city. From 1 September 1942, the peninsula was under the administration of Generalbezirk Krim (General of Crimea) und Teilbezirk (and sub-district) of Turin.

Despite clumsy tactics by the Nazis and their allies, the Crimean mountains remained an indomitable stronghold of anti-indigenous peoples until the day the peninsula was liberated from occupying forces in 1944.

On May 18, 1944, the entire Crimean Tatars were forced to leave the "Shogun" (Crimean Tatars in exile) to Central Asia by Joseph Stalin's Soviet government as a form of collective punishment, on the basis that they had cooperated with the Nazi occupation forces[4] 46% of The deportees died of starvation or disease. On June 26 of the same year, the Armenians, Bulgarians, and Greeks deported to Central Asia.

By the end of the summer of 1944, the ethnic cleansing of Crimea had been completed. In 1967, the figure Tatars were resettled, but they were forbidden to legally return to their homeland until the last days of the last days of the Soviet Union. Soviet Crimea was abolished on 30 June 1945 and transferred to Crimean Oblast (an oblast of the RSFSR).

But after Turkey joined NATO in 1952, the Sevastopol base lost its importance due to the possibility of closing the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits by Turkey, a modern member of NATO. Perhaps this factor was one of the motives that made the General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party Nikita Khrushchev dedicate the peninsula and its naval base to the Ukrainian Soviet Republic in 1954.

On February 19, 1954, the Standing Executive Committee of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union issued a decree transferring the Crimean Oblast from the RSFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.

In the post-war years, Crimea flourished as a major tourist destination, in which new monuments and resorts were built for tourists. Tourists came from all over the Soviet Union and neighboring countries. Infrastructure and industrialization in Crimea were also developed, especially around the seaports of Kerch and Sevastopol and in the oblast's land-capped capital Simferopol.

Following a popular referendum on January 20, 1991, the Crimean Oblast was elevated to an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on January 12, 1991, by decision of the Supreme Soviet of Soviet Ukraine.

Crimea in independent Ukraine

With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Crimea became part of newly independent Ukraine, which led to tensions between Russia and Ukraine. Since the Black Sea Fleet is based on the peninsula, there are fears of armed skirmishes that sometimes break out. Crimean Tatars began to return from exile and reside in Crimea.

On February 26, 1992, the Verkhovnoye Soviet (Parliament of Crimea) renamed the Soviet Republic of Crimea and proclaimed an autonomous government on May 5, 1992 (which was awaiting ratification in a popular referendum held on August 2, 1992) and the first constitution of Crimea was ratified on the same day . On May 6, 1992 the same parliament added a new sentence to the constitution declaring that Crimea was part of Ukraine.

On May 19, Crimea agreed to remain part of Ukraine and rescinded its self-proclaimed government, but the Crimean communists forced the Ukrainian government to extend the already existing state of autonomy for Crimea. 587 In the same period, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk agreed to divide the Sea Fleet. The former Soviet lions between Russia and the newly established Ukrainian Navy.

Autonomous Republic of Crimea: 1999–2013

On October 14, 1993, the Crimean Parliament established the post of Crimean President and ratified a quota for the Crimean Tartar in the 14-person assembly. However, political chaos persisted. Constitutional amendments mitigated the conflict, but on March 17, 1995, the Verkhovna Rada intervened, repealing and disrupting the Crimean constitution and ousting Mashkov and his office staff for committing acts against the state and promoting integration with Russia. After an interim constitution, the current constitution came into force, and the name of the lands was changed to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Following the ratification of the May 1997 Treaty of Amity, Cooperation, and Partnership in Friendship and the division of the Black Sea Fleet, international tensions slowly subsided. However, in September 2008, Ukrainian Minister of Foreign Affairs Volodymyr Ohryzko accused Russia of granting Russian passports to residents of Crimea and described this as a "real problem" caused by Russia's stated policy of foreign military intervention to protect Russian citizens.

On August 24, 2009, anti-Ukrainian demonstrations took place in Crimea, with the participation of ethnic Russians. Sergey Skov (of the Russian Bloc and later a deputy speaker in the Verkhovna Rada) said he hoped Russia would treat Crimea the same way it treated South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Chaos pervaded the Verkhovna Rada during the debate on extending the lease of the Russian naval base established on April 27, 2010 after the Verkhovna Rada ratified a treaty to lease Russia a coastal dock and military facilities in the Crimean port of Sevastopol until 2042. Together with the Verkhovna Rada, the treaty was ratified Also by the Russian State Duma.

Crimea crisis 2014

On February 26, 2014, thousands of pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian protesters clashed in front of the parliament building in Simferopol, encouraging Russian President Vladimir Putin to deploy 150,000 Russian troops to the Ukrainian border.

The demonstrations were followed by the impeachment of the pro-Russian President of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych on February 22, 2014, and many pro-Russian demonstrators demanded that Crimea separate from Ukraine and seek help from Russia.

On February 28, 2014, Russian military forces occupied areas, buildings, airports and other key properties in Crimea. The Provisional Government of Ukraine described the events as the invasion and occupation of Crimea by Russian forces. Crimean Prime Minister Sergei Aksionov, elected in a flying session early in the week, emphasized unilateral control of the Crimean security forces and appealed to Russia to "help ensure peace and tranquility" on the peninsula. The Ukrainian central government does not recognize Aksionov's government and considers it illegitimate.

The Russian Foreign Ministry announced that "the movement of armored vehicles of the Black Sea Fleet in Crimea took place in full compliance with the basic Russian-Ukrainian agreements on the Black Sea Fleet."

On March 1, the Russian parliament granted President Vladimir Putin the authority to use military force in Ukraine. The United States and the European Union condemned the move. On the same day, Ukraine's interim President Oleksandr Turchynov decreed that the appointment of the Prime Minister of Crimea was unconstitutional.